To match the survey studies and provide a better grip on the mechanisms and causal underpinnings of sustainable cooperation, several types of experiments will be performed. First, various groups from the SCOOP consortium will run experiments within their own disciplinary context, using existing infrastructure, targeting the sustainability of cooperation. Second, linked to and integrated with the surveys, targeted experiments will be conducted on specific cooperation-related issues inside the panels, i.e., we invite samples of respondents to experimental settings. An important aim of these experiments is to control, complement, and validate experimental studies done more locally in the SCOOP consortium. Third, experimental designs will be explicitly included in the panels. With the application of factorial designs, experiments may be instigated in a random and non-selective population of respondents.


A new data collection occupies a central place in SCOOP’s data efforts. In its unique design, individuals will be nested within families, communities, and organizations. The representative sample of Dutch people, with the help of Statistics Netherlands, will be approached and followed through panel studies as well as selected experiments. In total the net family sample will consist of net 5000 families nested in 50 neighborhoods in 200 municipalities. The organizational sample consists of net 100 organizations, 2000 employees, and 200 managers. Where possible, we will make use of the LISS panel. Multilevel modeling will provide a detailed picture of the nested structure of individuals within specific families, organizations, and communities. The data consists of the following elements:

  • Panel participants will be repeatedly approached for a period of 6 years, using both panel survey designs and deliberative polling events.
  • The focus will be on the varying effects of different context characteristics on cooperation. Therefore, within the municipalities and organizations, contextual data will be collected on features of these communities, including the presence of nursery homes and child care centers.
  • Survey research includes a mixed-mode survey, applying interviews and web based surveys. Families and individuals who are hard to reach will be provided with the requisite equipment and Internet access.
  • New measurements to indicate sustainable cooperation will be developed, with explicit attention to time frames and the sustainability of cooperative arrangements. SCOOP researchers will develop and test new scales, supported by psychometrists and test designers from the consortium.
  • Panel studies will be combined wit the collection of longitudinal social network data in targeted subgroups of the family and the organization panel. In addition to these new panel data, we are able to rely on in-house existing panels, such as New Families in the Netherlands (including divorced parents), Youth in Europe (including an overrepresentation of migrants), Trails (including adolescents) and Sustainable Workforce (organizations in Europe), where in new waves measurements about sustainability can be added.


SCOOP also collects and organizes data that can support the historical analysis of long-run societal developments. A comparative analysis on historical data allows us to investigate the causal drivers of change. Because time series are extensive and cover long periods, and because it is increasingly possible to compare different development trajectories, causes and consequences of particular changes can be studied at the societal level. The integration of a long-term historical perspective makes SCOOP unique within the landscape of studies of sustainable cooperation. Our consortium has expertise on a number of highly relevant historical data sources on different aggregation levels.

At the level of populations, long-term trends in society are increasingly studied with the aid of new forms of standardization, such as those that have been developed by the Common Lab Infrastructure for the Arts and Humanities (CLARIAH), the NWO-funded research infrastructure project led by Van Zanden and others (including the CLIO-INFRA project on global inequality). These projects will provide macro-indicators for inter alia economic growth and demographic trends from the middle ages onwards.

At the level of groups, SCOOP can rely on available datasets on e.g., the emergence and development of specific types of institutions for collective action such as commons, guilds, and cooperatives since the late medieval period for several European countries. This data will be used to follow the evolutions of institutions designed for cooperation across Europe. In addition, De Moor and colleagues from Spain and the UK, have developed a detailed reconstruction of the regulation of more than 30 commons since 1400, which allows us to study continuous adaptation of regulation. At the level of individuals, the project can build on datasets constructed for De Moor’s ERC and VIDI project on demographic information on Northwestern Europe since the late 16th century and additional datasets available at the micro-level through other projects such as CLIO-Infra and data repositories such as DANS EASY.


Scoop uses existing longitudinal panel studies in the Netherlands and abroad and cross-sectional studies over time or between countries . Interlinking and reusing the available data can provide valuable information. The family and its members often constitute the main units of panel studies, such as the Netherlands Kinship Panel Study (NKPS), the Dutch multigenerational LifeLines study, the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP), the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS), the Swiss Household Panel, and the American Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID). A characteristic of these panel studies is that they run over an extensive period of time, making them suitable for answering questions on sustainable cooperation. Ongoing cross-sectional international comparative datasets include the World Value Study (1990-2015), International Social Survey Program (ISSP, 1985-2015), European Values Study (EVS, 1981-2008), European Social Survey (ESS, 2002-2016), European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS, 2005-2015), European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS, 2003-2012), and the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE, 2004-2013). Through the comparison with data sets from neighboring countries, we can determine whether SCOOP’s  findings can be extrapolated beyond national boundaries.


University of Groningen
SCOOP - Sociology

Visiting address:
Grote Rozenstraat 31
9712 TG Groningen
The Netherlands
Postal address:
RUG - SCOOP - Sociology
Grote Kruisstraat 2/1
9712 TS Groningen
The Netherlands