Cooperation in families, communities, and organizations can only be sustained when different individuals and groups are included. Inclusion refers to subjective feelings of acceptance and belongingness, which are anchored in access to key collective resources (housing, healthcare) for different individuals and groups, opportunities to participate in important activities (education, work), or voice in determining the rules and regulations that govern the distribution of these collective outcomes. If individuals and groups do not benefit from such central collective resources – and thus feel excluded – they are no longer inclined to cooperate in facilitating their joint production. This is a recipe for social unrest and political destabilization.
Institutional arrangements aim to secure fair access to collective resources and activities. As such they address the inherent tension between gain motives (maximizing desirable outcomes and opportunities for the self and one’s own ethnic group, work team or family) and solidarity motives. External shocks, spillover effects and negative feedback cycles may call for a re-calibration of these arrangements. How can families, communities and organizations adapt to changing realities, so that individuals and groups continue to cooperate in the maintenance and prudent use of collective resources?
To answer this question, three challenges will be addressed. The first, Accommodating Newcomers focuses on the impact of migrants entering into families, communities and organizations. This external shock tests the ability of existing arrangements to take advantage of the unique inputs newcomers have to offer, and to accommodate their specific needs. The second challenge, Connecting Communities targets the spillover effects of diverging networks, value systems, and interdependence expectations hat can either enhance or undermine commitment to the provision and protection of collective outcomes. The third, Dealing with Diversity focuses on the feedback cycles that elicit cooperative bene ts from differences between individuals and groups, or lead them to segregate and ‘opt out’.